Sea ice differs between the Arctic and Antarctic, primarily because of their different geography. Flora. Simply tell us if you think the answer is the Arctic, Antarctica, or perhaps even both… One of the biggest differences between the poles has to do with people that reside there. The Arctic and the Antarctic show differences in their environment, weather, animal and plant life, human activity, and the like. Diving is one of the narwhal’s special talents. @media (max-width: 1171px) { .sidead300 { margin-left: -20px; } } Both the Arctic Ocean and the Southern Ocean are defined by ice and dramatic shifts between endless day and endless night. That’s because the Arctic (north pole area) is melting. They have no hemoglobin—the oxygen-carrying protein that makes red blood cells red. Joint WMO-Roshydromet workshop on the International Polar Decade initiative. Weddell seals grind their teeth on holes in the ice to keep them open to their comings and goings between ocean and air. Arctic. Not only Polar bears, other terrestrial animals or land animals such as wolves, foxes, hares, reindeer, lemmings and oxen can also be seen in the Arctic region. Key to survival is the skill with which they hunt arctic marine animals like seals and whales. Arctic Cod are critical players in the Arctic food web. Also, a belt of floating mass of ice debris called the ice pack surrounds the continent of Antarctica. These increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases are trapping heat and taking a toll on the planet, especially at the poles where the largest increases in temperature will occur. It has the longest migration of all birds, flying from breeding grounds near the North Pole to wintering grounds off Antarctica. Subsistence hunting of bowhead whales formed the basis for Iñupiaq social and spiritual life. In the Arctic Ocean, different species of copepods have different life cycles and eating patterns and they are important sources of food for larger organisms. The Arctic Ocean is characterized by a layer of cold, fresh water at its surface, a product of the floating ice. This quiz couldn’t be more straightforward. Next: More arctic and more Antarctica, including Science and survival on Continent 7 and Drifting With the Ice: Life on an Arctic Expedition. Antarctica and Greenland lose around 350 billion tons of ice each year from such melting. Weddell seals are very vocal and have a large repertoire of sounds. The Arctic Tern could really be called the Arctic-Antarctic Tern. Antarctic and Arctic are two regions on Earth. At both poles, tiny animals, called zooplankton, are near the base of the food chain. Among the hardiest of the polar creatures, the male emperor penguin is the only animal that remains throughout the winter on the Antarctic continent. Scientists also use ice cores to gain insight into the Earth’s ancient atmosphere. The Arctic ( or ) is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. Icebergs are formed when chunks of glacial ice break off (called calving) from an ice sheet or shelf. The U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy is a ship with a primary mission to serve as a research platform in the Arctic. The first difference between the Arctic and Antarctica is they’re located on opposite sides of the world. Glaciers and icebergs represent two of the most important facets of Earth's ecosystem. Russia has already staked a claim, using submarines to plant a flag on the Arctic Ocean floor. Depending on the season, much or all of the Arctic Ocean is covered by a layer of sea ice, ranging in thickness from a few inches to over six feet, which is always shifting as it floats on the ocean's surface. This current pulls up cold, nutrient-rich waters from the deep sea to the surface, a process known as upwelling. Also, a belt of floating mass of ice debris called the ice pack surrounds the continent of Antarctica. The Smithsonian's Arctic Studies Center, established in 1988, is the only U.S. government program with a special focus on northern cultural research and education. Though the Vikings explored parts of the Arctic over a millennium ago, and small numbers of people have been living along the Arctic coast for much longer, scientific knowledge about the region was slow to develop; the large islands of Severnaya Zemlya, just north of the Taymyr Peninsula on the Russian mainland, wer… These seals do not migrate and are commonly found within a few miles of their birthplace. Among the biggest threats to the poles is rapid climate change. Depending on the season, much or all of the Arctic Ocean is covered by a layer of sea ice, ranging in thickness from a few inches to over six feet, which is always shifting as it … 66º33′ are the northern and southern latitudinal lines of the Arctic Circle (66º33′ N) and Antarctic Circle (66º33′ S), respectively. Pack ice is also referred to as drift ice because it is not attached to a shoreline and can be moved by the wind and ocean currents. They live and travel in pods that range in size from a few narwhals to several hundred individuals, but in the summertime, the congregations can be in the thousands. They float with most of their mass below the water, hence the expression “tip of the iceberg”. Scientists are just beginning to understand who eats whom in the polar oceans. International Scientific Conference "COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTICA", March 2 In an amazing feat of synchronized swimming, they use a staggered formation so that no krill swims directly in another's wake. Many different types of ice can be found in the Arctic and Antarctic. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska (United States), Northern Canada (Canada), … When you look at the globe, Arctic is the region on the top-most corner of the world. But researchers have also found that the ice crystals don’t go away during the warmer summer months—one of the implications of living below the ice. A narwhal breaching the water's surface, his tusk points to the sky. Recent studies in the Ross Sea suggest the loud vocalizations may be used to stun prey. Now it's down to just 10 percent and the Arctic may have ice-free summers by the end of the 21st century. To study ice, sometimes you have to break it. Without phytoplankton and algae, the large marine animals would not have food to eat. The main difference between Arctic and Antarctic is that the Arctic is a polar region on the Earth's northern hemisphere and Antarctic is a region around the Earth's South Pole. The lowest natural air temperature ever recorded on Earth was −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) at the Russian Vostok Station in Antarctica on 21 July 1983. “Anti-” is commonly a synonym for the opposite in English as well as in Greek. The Iñupiaq have lived in the northern section of Alaska for thousands of years. During the deepest dives, a narwhal can shut off oxygen flow to unessential organs and instead divert it to where it is needed most. The male penguins huddle together and keep the egg warm by balancing it on their feet and covering it with their skin. • Arctic area has trees while Antarctic does not. It is true that there are no bears in Antarctica, but the name comes from a Roman version of the Greek word that is antarktike. They have hollow guard hairs that keep fur from matting when it gets wet. Polar bears, who rely on sea ice to reach seals for their winter meals, will have less time to reach their food source as the ice declines and breaks up earlier in the season. Global temperatures have increased since the 1800s, and sea ice has been decreasing in extent and thickness. Today their lands are part of four different nations—the United States, Canada, Denmark (Greenland) and Russia. Scientists have discovered that the ratio of thick to thin sea ice is changing. Sea ice used to provide protection from powerful ocean waves but now that sea ice is melting, the shoreline is eroding rapidly. Some animals make fantastically long migrations, moving from the Arctic to the Antarctic and back again every year, living an endless polar summer. In fact, polar bears are more concerned about overheating than about getting cold. The Inupiaq people of Alaska have more than 100 words for different kinds of sea ice, illustrated here. Every year as the sun disappears for the winter, the surface waters around Antarctica freeze into a slab of ice 10-feet thick, which effectively doubles the size of the continent. The Arctic Studies Center seeks to bring its researchers together with community scholars in the collaborative exploration of the cultural heritage represented in these impressive collections. Animals found on the Antarctic region are calm in nature. This ivory sculpture from Point Barrow, Alaska, represents Kikámigo, a guardian spirit, holding a whale in each hand. When you look at the globe, Antarctic is the region on the bottom-most corner of the world. This is the reason why the Antarctic region is considered colder and windier than the Arctic region. Sea ice forms during the winter, more than doubling the size of the Antarctic continent, and then melts in the spring and summer. You could do that if you were a polar bear. Three distinct types of killer whale can be found in the Antarctic, each with a different habitat and diet preference. And it is not just temperatures that are changing due to the increases in carbon dioxide. Nowadays, scientists have impermanent camps in Antarctic. On the adjacent land, communities of native peoples have thrived for thousands of years by adapting to life along the edge of the ice. But, overall the land- and fresh-water based ice continues to shrink. Orcas stay put in their distinctive ecosystems, and there are different characteristics of the groups (or pods) in various locations. All rights reserved. Antarctica is the coldest, driest, and windiest of Earth's seven continents, and 98 percent of the continent is covered by ice with no tundra, trees or bushes. The graph is provided by the. The nutrients cultivate blooms of phytoplankton and ice-algae, which feed a super-abundant supply of Antarctic krill, small shrimp-like crustaceans. A female walrus and her calf (, (The Wales Inupiaq Sea Ice Dictionary, courtesy of Igor Krupnik (NMNH)). Because they are such strong swimmers, polar bears earned the species name of Ursus maritimus—bears of the sea. Both male and female walruses have strong long tusks that they use to help pull themselves out of the water. The symbol of the Arctic is often the polar bear, the pole's cute yet fearsome top predator. Antarctica is a continent devoid of human settlement, except for the over 50 research stations built there by 27 different countries. Due to the lack of major population centres in the Arctic, weather and climate observations from the region tend to be widely spaced and of short duration compared to the midlatitudes and tropics. The Arctic is an ocean, covered by a thin layer of perennial sea ice and surrounded by land. It has indigenous people such as Inuits, Indians and Siberians. Many northern communities have also observed coastal erosion and watched the permafrost—ground that used to be frozen all year—melting and buckling under their homes and roads. Antarctica means 'no bears are all mythical'. Industrial fishing, started in 1996 by New Zealand and now practiced by a dozen nations, is homing in on Antarctic toothfish and krill in the Ross Sea. Travel to the ends of the earth—literally—and discover the polar ocean basins. The Arctic and Antarctic may be polar opposites, but in one sense they are connected despite being thousands of kilometres apart. In the Southern Ocean, Antarctic krill swim in dense schools of 20,000 animals per cubic yard (540,000 cubic feet). When salt water becomes ice, some of the salt is left behind in the water, making the water directly below sea ice saltier and denser than most seawater. For comparison, this is 10.7 °C (20 °F) colder than subliming dry iceat one atmosphere of partial pressure, but since CO2 only makes up 0.039% of air, temperatures of less than −140 °C (−220 °F) would be needed to produce dry ice snow in … Walruses forage on the seafloor, diving to depths up to 180 meters (590 feet) for clams, cockles, and mussels. The ice fish instead have special blood that contains proteins that act like antifreeze. Current Arctic sea ice extent Arctic sea ice extent on 9 th August was 5.60 million square km, 1.87 million square km below the 1981-2010 average. The famous tusk is actually a specialized tooth that protrudes out of the left lip, and in rare cases, a narwhal can have two. ADVERTISEMENT. The Smithsonian possesses one of the world's finest anthropological collections from arctic and sub-arctic regions. The longest tusks can reach over eight feet long (2.4 meters). Unlike the Arctic, there are no indigenous communities based in Antarctica. Ironically, the ships that bring nature-loving tourists may also unwittingly be bringing invasive species, such as plant spores and rodents that could damage the fragile Antarctic ecosystem. The Arctic is a sea of ice surrounded by land and located at the highest latitudes of the northern hemisphere. Smaller populations live off the eastern coast of Greenland as well. Filed Under: Earth Tagged With: Antarctic, Arctic, arctic and antarctic, Continent, Eskimos, Igloos, Penguins, Polar bears, seals, Koshal is a graduate in Language Studies with a Master's Degree in Linguistics. The speaker explicitly encapsulated that in polar regions Arctic is located at the top, while the Antarctic is situated at the bottom of the world, where in speaker highlighted that these names are originated from the constellations. Then a film of ice forms, called grease ice, named for its close resemblance to the look of an oil slick on water. Exactly how climate change will affect the Arctic is hard to predict. They eat small crustaceans, such as amphipods and copepods. From Shishmaref to Sachs Harbour, Canada, Arctic communities are on the frontlines of climate change. Polar bears are seen in plenty in the arctic region. The Arctic and Antarctic – two fundamentally different polar regions The north and south polar regions are among the most remote and extreme environments for life on Earth. Makes you feel tired just thinking about it. When uneaten organisms die, they sink to the seafloor, feeding fish, seastars, soft corals, and other organisms in deeper water. Understanding the function of the tusk is an ongoing area of investigation. Since 1983, Beijing has been a signatory to the Antarctic Treaty which prohibits new territorial claims, other than the seven original ones. A narwhal is a toothed whale and is closely related to dolphins, porpoises, and orcas. Even in the twenty-four-hour light of summer, the multi-year sea ice can be nearly 2 meters thick and the ship's job is to cut right through the ice, no matter its thickness. In the northern polar region, the water and ice of the Arctic Ocean are surrounded by land. Other than polar bears, there are other marine mammals such as whales, seals and walrus in the artic. Orcas, also known as killer whales, can be found in both the Arctic and the Southern Oceans. Both regions have attracted their fair share of explorers in search of glory, scientific and … Even in the southern summer, the average temperature is -17.5°F (-27.5°C), although along the coast it is warmer. The Antarctic. While the Arctic region has … Orcas travel in pods of up to 40 related individuals. It thus demands different questions and answers than the global common Antarctica with its one overarching treaty system and the limited … Polar bears are threatened by the loss of sea ice in the Arctic. Difference Between Longitude and Latitude, Difference Between Coronavirus and Cold Symptoms, Difference Between Coronavirus and Influenza, Difference Between Coronavirus and Covid 19, Difference Between Works Cited and Works Consulted, Difference Between Stereotype and Archetype, Difference Between Imidazolidinyl Urea and Diazolidinyl Urea, Difference Between Chlamydomonas and Spirogyra, Difference Between Borax and Boric Powder, Difference Between Conditional and Constitutive Knockout. Land is being lost, along with animals that provide food for the people living in the Arctic. Since 1979, there has been an increase in Antarctic sea ice extent. (E. Siddon, UAF, Hidden Ocean 2005, NOAA.). A region with vaguely defined limits, it extends over six countries that border the Arctic Ocean: Canada, the USA (Alaska), Denmark (Greenland), Russia, Norway and Iceland. Atmospheric carbon dioxide has been rising for more than a century, with large contributions from the fossil fuels used to power our homes, businesses, and cars. While all males have a tusk, only 15 percent of females have a tusk, leading scientists to believe it has a role in sexual selection. The fish actually have ice crystals inside their bodies and the special proteins ensure that the crystals don’t grow in size. Sea ice is by definition made from frozen seawater, which gives it different properties than ice made of freshwater. The Arctic is not the Antarctic and the Antarctic is not the Arctic.” Antarctica is surrounded by the vast Southern Ocean, which is soaking up much of the atmosphere’s excess heat. In certain regions of the Antarctic, sea ice cover is actually growing. Then they dig out their prey using the tough edges of their noses, similar to how pigs root around in dirt and grass. Antarctica is isolated from the rest of the continents by the Circumpolar Current, which swirls clockwise around the landmass. • However, the Antarctic region is qualified by the presence of marine mammals such as penguins, whales and seals. Great description; It is a good idea to put images to complement the description. ("Perennial" refers to the oldest and thickest sea ice.) Unicorns may be creatures of the imagination, but narwhals are the real deal. ), This graph of the Arctic sea ice coverage shows data from recent years. All orcas are currently considered to be the same species, although there is some thought that they might be different species among the pods in Antarctica, or at least subspecies (pdf). Glacial ice forms on land, and is made of freshwater snow packed down tightly over many years. See how well you know the Poles and the regions surrounding them. In the Arctic, some of the sea ice stays throughout the year, called multi-year ice. Polar Bears are dying off. this video shows the difference between the arctic and the antarctic. Measures of Supporting Business Activities in the Arctic; Open Arctic and Antarctic; Marine Protected Areas of the Arctic and Antarctic; How to Obtain an Education and find a Prestigious Job in the Arctic? From 1979 to 2005, sea ice cover declined by about 20 percent. Early Eskimos, known as Groswater Dorset, occupied the Gulf of St. Lawrence about 2,500 years ago. They can swim for miles and stay submerged for two minutes at a time. • Arctic is the region on the top-most corner of the globe while Antarctic at the bottom most corner. Ice can be classified by age, whether it is made from fresh or salt water, or by its ever-changing forms. The people that live here are mostly scientists and technicians engaged in research. The ice caps are melting and sea levels are rising because of the warming of our planet due to greenhouse Without sea ice, hunting has become significantly harder. It is important to note that Antarctica is a continent surrounded by the world’s stormiest seas whereas the Arctic is an ocean with the masses of other lands in the circle. They eat the photosynthesizing phytoplankton and in turn are food for fish, seabirds and marine mammals. But the Arctic region is home to more than 4 million people, many of which are indigenous people, native to the area. (R. Hopcroft, UAF, Hidden Ocean 2005 NOAA. A dive tender monitors the line connected to ice divers studying creatures living on the under-side of the sea ice. It used to be ice-free until about 34 million years ago, when it became covered with ice. Quiz: Arctic vs Antarctic: Can you tell which is which? It's warming at twice the rate of the rest of the planet. Since the signing of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959, the southern polar region has been managed on a collective basis. As a result, the sea ice that forms in the Arctic is not as mobile as sea ice in the Antarctic. That might not seem like much, but keep in mind it includes all the saltwater in the oceans too. Although sea ice moves around the Arctic basin, it tends to stay in the cold Arctic waters. Antarctica, on the other hand, is a continent, covered by a very thick ice cap and surrounded by a rim of sea ice and the Southern Ocean. The primary difference between the Arctic and Antarctica is geographical. The Iñupiaq developed sophisticated survival skills for understanding animal migrations, weather patterns, ocean currents, and more. They use highly sensitive whiskers on their snouts to locate food. A stormy sea lashes the village of Shismaref, Alaska, where the coastline has eroded 30–90 m (100–300 ft) in the past 30 years. Also, the region is devoid of masses of algae. An ice-free Arctic could mean a new trade route—a Northwest Passage connecting Europe to Asia - bypassing both the Panama and Suez canals. Although both are icy and frigid, the poles are actually more different than you might expect. But, further genetic testing proved that they were in fact, not the same species and that the miles between do make a difference. In 2011 a BBC crew filmed a never-before-seen phenomenon of the salt water sinking below newly formed ice and the water around it slowly freezing. The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets are the only ice sheets currently on Earth, and they contain 75 percent of the freshwater in the world. In the winter narwhals live offshore among the ice floes, but in the summer, when the ice melts, they migrate towards the shore and congregate in summering grounds. It is devoid of towns and living places. 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